Aryobarzanes (in Ancient Greek: Ἀριοβαρζάνης, in Persian: آریو برزن; also spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan (meaning “exalting the Aryans“); died 330 BC), also known as Aryobarzanes the Brave, was an Achaemenid prince, satrap and a Persian military commander who led a last stand of the Persian army at the Battle of the Persian Gate against Macedonian King Alexander the Great in the winter of 330 BC.
Following the Persian defeat at Gaugamela, Darius realized he could not defend his capital Persepolis and travelled east to rebuild his armies, leaving Ariobarzanes in command. Meanwhile, Alexander the Great split his army and led his 14,000-strong force towards the Persian capital via the Persian Gates. There Ariobarzanes successfully ambushed Alexander the Great’s army, inflicting heavy casualties. The Persian success at the Battle of the Persian Gate was short lived though; after being held off for 30 days, Alexander the Great outflanked and destroyed the defenders. Ariobarzanes himself was killed either during the battle or during the retreat to Persepolis. Some sources indicate that the Persians were betrayed by a captured tribal chief who showed the Macedonians an alternate path that allowed them to outflank Ariobarzanes in a reversal of Thermopylae.